This feature is available in all editions.
Is there a way to see a timeline of task progress for a user in a sprint/iteration? In effect, a summary of the hours spent on a task per day.
If Effort Tracking has been enabled, you are tracking Effort. You can see accumulated Effort on your My Home page, Member Tracking (for the total sprint/iteration), and in the Member Actuals Report (for a specific date range). These can in turn be filtered by backlog group.
If Effort Tracking is not enabled, you can see a Burndown graph in the Member Dashboard report. Here you can compare the member's total To Do between two data points.